Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine established in 1929. In 1921 in Kiev hubnarosvity organized individuals of a research laboratory, which in 1922 was transformed into the Kiev scientific doslidchu Department of Physics at the Kiev Polytechnic Institute. January 1, 1929 the department was reorganized in Physics Research doslidchyy Narkomosvity Institute of Physics of the USSR, which in 1932 was pidporyadkovanyy YUAN i pereimenovanyy in 1936 in Institute of Physics, USSR. Organizers i first director of the Institute O.H. Holdman was elected in 1929 Academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences in the department of physics.
At the time of the Institute of its staff consisted of 20 employees, including 6 researchers and 10 graduate students. With sparse equipment, small staff in the early years of the Institute of its activities directed at advanced training of young scientific personnel, search and formation of subjects of research. This work has been quite successful. Postgraduate Department of Physics and the Institute in its early years are completed later known scientists as academics USSR Vadim Lashkarev, S.I. Pekar, M.V. Pasichnyk, USSR Academy of Sciences V.P. Lynnyk, Corresponding Member SSR N.D. Morhulis, P.H. Borzyak, doctors M.D. Habovych, O.H. Myselyuk (Director of the Institute in 1938-1941) and others.
By 1938 the Institute to formalize the three main areas of research:
- Physics of Semiconductors (head works O.H.Holdman from 1939 - Vadim Lashkarev)
- Physics of electronic and electric processes (Head - N.D. Morhulis)
- Roentgen METALLOFIZIKA (Head - Doctor of physics and mathematics S.D.Hertsriken)
Before the war, in 1941, the Institute had 122 employees, including 36 scientists (5 doctors and 10 candidates), 7 and 15 were graduate research and support staff. The Institute was a great experimental production workshop, which was highly skilled staff and appropriate equipment. The Institute had its organ - "Ukrainian Physical Notes", which went from 1929 to 1936
During the war, the Institute of Physics was evacuated to Ufa. The management of the Institute funded by Ukrainian Physico-Technical Institute (Acad. O.I.Leypunskyy, Director of the Institute from 1943 to 1949, Professor H.D.Latyshev). The work of physicists at this time was aimed at meeting the needs of the defense industry (industry communication aviamotorobuduvannya, petroleum industry, chemical engineering, etc.).
In the postwar years, the Institute was quickly rebuilt, in 1953, enacted new laboratory, industrial and residential buildings on Avenue of Science, near the picturesque Goloseevskogo forest.
There are new directions in the work of the Institute - received extensive development of research in nuclear physics (O.I.Leypunskyy then M.V.Pasichnyk,), Crystal Physics (NAS Ukraine A.F.Pryhotko) theoretical physics (acad . Davydov, S.I.Pekar). In 1947, the government created an electrostatic generator in 1956 commissioned cyclotron laboratory, and February 12, 1960 at the Institute of Physics launched nuclear reactor.
Successful research in the postwar years and the growth of scale created conditions that require further development of organizational and structural changes. In 1945 in the USSR was established Laboratory of Metal (in 1955 transformed into the Institute matalofizyky SSR), part of which included department diffusion processes of the Institute of Physics. In 1960, for the purpose of scientific research physics of semiconductor devices and their application on the basis of Semiconductor Physics Institute established the Institute of Semiconductors of the USSR Academy of Sciences (now the Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine). In 1966, on the basis of elementary units and other theoretical departments of the Institute established the Institute for Theoretical Physics, USSR Academy of Sciences. Several sections of the profile were the basis established in 1970, the Institute of Nuclear Research, USSR. On the basis of optical quantum electronics in 1995 established the Institute of Applied Optics of Sciences of Ukraine.
The result of these organizational changes was the transition much of the major scientists to the newly created institutes of the Academy of Sciences. However, this has not led to a decrease in the level of scientific work in the Institute of Physics. Along with traditional areas of research for the Institute (crystallophysics, physical electronics) in the 60's were deployed to work in the fields of quantum electronics and holography, nonlinear optics, pyroelectric radiation and others. The formation and development of the Institute of Physics of NAS of Ukraine took place through active creative work of major scholars who at various times worked in the Institute. As mentioned, the first director of the Institute was teaching. O.H.Holdman. Later, director of the Institute were O.H.Myselyuk (1938-1941 years), H.V.Pfeyffer (1941-1944), O.I.Leypunskyy (1944-1949 years), M.V.Pasichnyk (1949 -1965 years), A.F.Pryhotko (1965-1970), M.T.Shpak (1970-1987 biennium).
The Institute worked known physics Davydov, P.H.Borzyak, V.L.Broude, M.F.Deyhen, V.Ye.Dyachenko, V.V.Yeremenko, H.D.Latyshev, V.YE . Lashkaryov, A.F.Lubchenko, N.D.Morhulis, O.F.Nyemets, S.I.Pekar, O.H.Sytenko, O.V.Snitko, K.B.Tolpyho, O.O.Harkevych .
The Institute's scientists made ??a significant, and in some cases a decisive contribution to the development of many areas of modern physical science. Well known for their fundamental research in many fields of nuclear physics and semiconductor physics of solids and liquid crystals, Physical i quantum electronics and plasma physics. About vahomist scientific achievements of the Institute of Physics of the NAS of Ukraine testifies to the fact that it is the largest in the country - six - officially registered scientific vidkryttiv.
In 1949 N.D. Morhulisom and P.M. Marchukom phenomenon experimentally be open termoemisiynoho converting thermal energy into electricity.
In 1965 reported the discovery of "The phenomenon of cold electron emission during the passage of current through ostrivkovi metalichni layers." Its authors - P.H. Borzyak, O.H. Sarbey i R.D. Fedorovych.
In 1966 reported the discovery of "Splitting phenomenon nondegenerate terms of molecular crystals with two or more molecules in the unit cell" ("Davydov splitting"). By opening - Academician Davydov. Discovery of supposed origin in the absorption spectra multypletnyh bands whose number corresponds to the number of molecules in a cell of the crystal, which was experimental confirmation in the department of academic A.F. Pryhotko and many other physics laboratories.
Discovery also recognized and researched at the Institute "phenomenon bahatoznachnosti anisotropy properties of semiconductor crystals, due to the peculiarities of the band structure. It manifests itself in the instability of the homogeneous distribution of the electric field in the crystal i in EMERGENCE layers with different magnitude in i direction electric fields. Opening Author - O.H. Sarbey. S.I. Pekar working in the institute, predicted "phenomenon extra distribution of light waves in crystals", which is also found experimental confirmation in the laboratories of the institute recognized opening of i. Immediately he created a theory polyaroniv.
In State USSR registered and scientific discovery EYRashby made in IF SSR. It is given to explain the nature of giant amplification intensities of transitions to impurity vidschepleni level (Rashba effect).
Institute staff published more than 120 books, which cover all scientific fields, developed at the institute, many of these books have become classics.
For outstanding scientific achievements scientists awarded the Lenin Institute, four USSR State Prize and 18 State Prize of Ukraine, as well as prizes NAS of Ukraine and international awards. Among the developments of the institute, which were introduced, it's worth mentioning metalevi kriostaty, bolometers and elektrotopohraf, used in space studies that kriohirurhichni instruments, lasers, piropryymachi. In particular, for the needs of more than fifty industry USSR Research Institute for manufacture until the early 70's released the developed PV Thess high sensitivity based on silver sulfide.
For many decades the Institute has close business relationships with leading universities in Kyiv and other cities of Ukraine. At different times, professors of Kyiv University. Shevchenko was Davydov, VE Dyachenko, VE Lashkaryov, N.D.Morhulis, VI Liashenko, O.F.Nyemets, NV Pasichnyk, S.I.Pekar, OH Sitenko, KB Tolpyho. Today, professors and teachers of Kyiv Taras Shevchenko National Technical University (KPI), Kyiv Mohyla Academy and other universities of the capital is the leading scientists of the Institute. They created a new department, taught courses, postgraduate exercised.
With great advances in the development of physical science and the training of highly qualified scientific personnel Institute of Physics in 1979, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR awarded the Order of the Red Banner.
Given the historical role of the staff of the Institute of Physics of NAS of Ukraine in Science and Technology Development in Ukraine, as well as the uniqueness of the main building of the Institute as one of the best examples of the architectural heritage of Ukraine postwar period and monumental painting its dome made ??in encaustic technique Honored Artist of Ukraine Corresponding Member Academy of Fine Arts M.A.Storozhenkom in 1998 Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine declared a monument of architecture, history and art conservation number 297.